Techno-Net is the protest form of the 1990s -- picketing on the information highways.
For example, a fast-growing assortment of men and women around the world are using the
InterNet (started by the U.S. military for information transfer-and-exchange that would
never be interfered with) to draw attention to a questionable military project in Alaska.
Now these InterNetting, e-mailing, faxing folks are blowing holes in the Department of
Defense secrecy wall, by using the government's own system.
The printed-word part of the protest started when Dennis Specht, an anti-nuclear
activist then living in Alaska, sent a news item to Nexus on the topic of HAARP --- the
High frequency Active Auroral Research Program. Then an Alaskan political activist and
science researcher in Anchorage, Nick Begich, networked with Patrick and Gael Crystal
Flanagan, who are self-described TechnoMonks living in Sedona, Arizona, and was told to
check out that same Australian-based magazine. Begich was surprised to see an item from
his hometown in Nexus, and immediately headed to the local library to dig out the
documents cited in the article.
That research led to articles and the book, Angels Don't Play this HAARP:
Advances in Tesla Technology, which is 230 pages of detailed information on this
intrusive project. This article will only give highlights. Despite the amount of research
(350 footnotes), at its heart it is a story about ordinary people who took on an
HAARP Boils The Upper Atmosphere
HAARP will zap the upper atmosphere with a focused and steerable electromagnetic beam.
It is an advanced model of an "ionospheric heater". (The ionosphere is the
electrically-charged sphere surrounding Earth's upper atmosphere. It ranges between about
40- to 600 miles above Earth's surface.)
Put simply, the apparatus for HAARP is a reversal of a radio telescope; antennas send
out signals instead of receiving. HAARP is the test run for a super-powerful
radiowave-beaming technology that lifts areas of the ionosphere by focusing a beam and
heating those areas. Electromagnetic waves then bounce back onto earth and penetrate
everything -- living and dead.
HAARP publicity gives the impression that the High-frequency Active Auroral Research
Program is mainly an academic project with the goal of changing the ionosphere to improve
communications for our own good. However, other U.S. military documents put it more
clearly -- HAARP aims to learn how to "exploit the ionosphere for Department of
Defense purposes". Communicating with submarines is only one of those purposes.
Press releases and other information from the military on HAARP continually downplay
what it could do. Publicity documents insist that the HAARP project is no different than
other ionospheric heaters operating safely throughout the world in places such as Arecibo,
Puerto Rico; Tromso, Norway and the former Soviet Union. However, a 1990 government
document indicates that the radio-frequency (RF) power zap will drive the ionosphere to
"...at the highest HF powers available in the West, the instabilities commonly
studied are approaching their maximum RF energy dissipative capability, beyond which the
plasma processes will 'runaway' until the next limiting factor is reached."
If the military, in cooperation with the University of Alaska Fairbanks, can show that
this new ground-based "Star Wars" technology is sound, they both win. The
military has a relatively-inexpensive defense shield and the University can brag about the
most dramatic geophysical manipulation since atmospheric explosions of nuclear bombs.
After successful testing, they would have the military megaprojects of the future and huge
markets for Alaska's North Slope natural gas.
Looking at the other patents which built on the work of a Texas' physicist named
Bernard Eastlund, it becomes clearer how the military intends to use the HAARP
transmitter. It also makes governmental denials less believable. The military knows how it
intends to use this technology, and has made it clear in their documents. The military has
deliberately misled the public, through sophisticated word games, deceit and outright
The military says the HAARP system could:
- give the military a tool to replace the electromagnetic pulse effect of atmospheric
thermonuclear devices (still considered a viable option by the military through at least
- replace the huge Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) submarine communication system operating
in Michigan and Wisconsin with a new and more compact technology.
- Be used to replace the over-the-horizon radar system that was once planned for the
current location of HAARP, with a more flexible and accurate system.
- provide a way to wipe out communications over an extremely large area, while keeping the
military's own communications systems working.
- provide a wide area earth-penetrating tomography which, if combined with the computing
abilities of EMASS and Cray computers, would make it possible to verify many parts of
nuclear nonproliferation and peace agreements.
- be a tool for geophysical probing to find oil, gas and mineral deposits over a large
- be used to detect incoming low-level planes and cruise missiles, making other
The above abilities seem like a good idea to all who believe in sound national defense,
and to those concerned about cost-cutting. However, the possible uses which the HAARP
records do not explain, and which can only be found in Air Force, Army, Navy and other
federal agency records, are alarming. Moreover, effects from the reckless use of these
power levels in our natural shield - the ionosphere - could be cataclysmic according to
Two Alaskans put it bluntly. A founder of the NO HAARP movement, Clare Zickuhr, says
"The military is going to give the ionosphere a big kick and see what happens."
The military failed to tell the public that they do not know what exactly will happen,
but a Penn State science article brags about that uncertainty. Macho science? The HAARP
project uses the largest energy levels yet played with by what Begich and Manning call
"the big boys with their new toys". It is an experiment on the sky, and
experiments are done to find out something not already known. Independent scientists told
Begich and Manning that a HAARP-type "skybuster" with its unforeseen effects
could be an act of global vandalism.
The patents described below were the package of ideas which were originally controlled
by ARCO Power Technologies Incorporated (APTI), a subsidiary of Atlantic Richfield
Company, one of the biggest oil companies in the world. APTI was the contractor that built
the HAARP facility. ARCO sold this subsidiary, the patents and the second phase
construction contract to E-Systems in June 1994.
E-Systems is one of the biggest intelligence contractors in the world -- doing work for
the CIA, defense intelligence organizations and others. $1.8 billion of their annual sales
are to these organizations, with $800 million for black projects -- projects so secret
that even the United States Congress isn't told how the money is being spent.
E-Systems was bought out by Raytheon, which is one of the largest defense contractors
in the world. In 1994 Raytheon was listed as number forty-two on the Fortune 500 list of
companies. Raytheon has thousands of patents, some of which will be valuable in the HAARP
project. The twelve patents below are the backbone of the HAARP project, and are now
buried among the thousands of others held in the name of Raytheon.
Bernard J. Eastlund's U.S. Patent # 4,686,605 , "Method and Apparatus for Altering
a Region in the Earth's Atmosphere, Ionosphere, and/or Magnetosphere" was sealed for
a year under a government Secrecy Order.
The Eastlund ionospheric heater was different; the radio frequency (RF) radiation was
concentrated and focused to a point in the ionosphere. This difference throws an
unprecedented amount of energy into the ionosphere. The Eastlund device would allow a
concentration of one watt per cubic centimeter, compared to others only able to deliver
about one millionth of one watt.
This huge difference could lift and change the ionosphere in the ways necessary to
create futuristic effects described in the patent. According to the patent, the work of
Nikola Tesla in the early 1900's formed the basis of the research.
What would this technology be worth to ARCO, the owner of the patents? They could make
enormous profits by beaming electrical power from a powerhouse in the gas fields to the
consumer without wires.
For a time, HAARP researchers could not prove that this was one of the intended uses
for HAARP. In April, 1995, however, Begich found other patents, connected with a "key
personnel" list for APTI. Some of these new APTI patents were indeed a wireless
system for sending electrical power.
Eastlund's patent said the technology can confuse or completely disrupt airplanes' and
missiles' sophisticated guidance systems. Further, this ability to spray large areas of
Earth with electromagnetic waves of varying frequencies, and to control changes in those
waves, makes it possible to knock out communications on land or sea as well as in the air.
The patent said:
"Thus, this invention provides the ability to put unprecedented amounts of power
in the Earth's atmosphere at strategic locations and to maintain the power injection
level, particularly if random pulsing is employed, in a manner far more precise and better
controlled than heretofore accomplished by the prior art, particularly by detonation of
nuclear devices of various yields at various altitudes..."
'..it is possible not only to interfere with third party communications but to take
advantage of one or more such beams to carry out a communications network even though the
rest of the world's communications are disrupted. Put another way, what is used to disrupt
another's communications can be employed by one knowledgeable of this invention as a
communication network at the same time."
.'.. large regions of the atmosphere could be lifted to an unexpectedly high altitude
so that missiles encounter unexpected and unplanned drag forces with resultant destruction
" Weather modification is possible by, for example, altering upper atmosphere wind
patterns by constructing one or more plumes of atmospheric particles which will act as a
lens or focusing device. ... molecular modifications of the atmosphere can take place so
that positive environmental effects can be achieved. Besides actually changing the
molecular composition of an atmospheric region, a particular molecule or molecules can be
chosen for increased presence. For example, ozone, nitrogen, etc., concentrations in the
atmosphere could be artificially increased...
Begich found eleven other APTI patents. They told how to make Nuclear-sized Explosions
without Radiation", power-beaming systems, over-the-horizon radar, detection systems
for missiles carrying nuclear warheads, electromagnetic pulses previously produced by
thermonuclear weapons and other Star-Wars tricks. This cluster of patents underlay the
HAARP weapon system.
Related research by Begich and Manning uncovered bizarre schemes. For example, Air
Force documents revealed that a system had been developed for manipulating and disrupting
human mental processes through pulsed radio-frequency radiation (the stuff of HAARP) over
large geographical areas. The most telling material about this technology came from
writings of Zbigniew Brzezinski (former National Security Advisory to U.S. President
Carter) and J.F. MacDonald (science advisor to U.S. President Johnson and a professor of
Geophysics at UCLA), as they wrote about use of power-beaming transmitters for geophysical
and environmental warfare. The documents showed how these effects might be caused, and the
negative effects on human health and thinking.
The mental-disruption possibilities for HAARP are the most disturbing. More than 40
pages of the book, with dozens of footnotes, chronicle the work of Harvard professors,
military planners and scientists as they plan and test this use of the electromagnetic
technology. For example, one of the papers describing this use was from the International
Red Cross in Geneva. It even gave the frequency ranges where these effects could occur --
the same ranges which HAARP is capable of broadcasting.
The following statement was made more than twenty-five years ago, in a book by
Brzezinski which he wrote while a professor at Columbia University:
"Political strategists are tempted to exploit research on the brain and human
behavior. Geophysicist Gordon J. F.MacDonald -- specialist in problems of warfare -- says
accurately-timed, artificially-excited electronic strokes 'could lead to a pattern of
oscillations that produce relatively high power levels over certain regions of the
earth...In this way, one could develop a system that would seriously impair the brain
performance of very large populations in selected regions over an extended period'...No
matter how deeply disturbing the thought of using the environment to manipulate behavior
for national advantages , to some, the technology permitting such use will very probably
develop within the next few decades."
In 1966, MacDonald was a member of the President's Science Advisory Committee and later
a member of the President's Council on Environmental Quality. He published papers on the
use of environmental control technologies for military purposes. The most profound comment
he made as a geophysicist was, "The key to geophysical warfare is the identification
of environmental instabilities to which the addition of a small amount of energy would
release vastly greater amounts of energy." While yesterday's geophysicists predicted
today's advances, are HAARP program managers delivering on the vision?
The geophysicists recognized that adding energy to the environmental soup could have
large effects. However, humankind has already added substantial amounts of electromagnetic
energy into our environment without understanding what might constitute critical mass. The
book by Begich and Manning raises questions: Have these additions been without effect, or
is there a cumulative amount beyond which irreparable damage can be done? Is HAARP another
step in a journey from which we cannot turn back? Are we about to embark on another energy
experiment which unleashes another set of demons from Pandora's box?
As early as 1970, Zbigniew Brzezinski predicted a "more controlled and directed
society" would gradually appear, linked to technology. This society would be
dominated by an elite group which impresses voters by allegedly superior scientific
know-how. Angels Don't Play This HAARP further quotes Brzezinski:
"Unhindered by the restraints of traditional liberal values, this elite would not
hesitate to achieve its political ends by using the latest modern techniques for
influencing public behavior and keeping society under close surveillance and control.
Technical and scientific momentum would then feed on the situation it exploits",
His forecasts proved accurate. Today, a number of new tools for the "elite"
are emerging, and the temptation to use them increases steadily. The policies to permit
the tools to be used are already in place. How could the United States be changed, bit by
bit, into the predicted highly-controlled technosociety? Among the
"steppingstones" Brzezinski expected were persisting social crises and use of
the mass media to gain the public's confidence.
In another document prepared by the government, the U.S. Air Force claims:
"The potential applications of artificial electromagnetic fields are wide-ranging
and can be used in many military or quasi-military situations...Some of these potential
uses include dealing with terrorist groups, crowd control, controlling breaches of
security at military installations, and antipersonnel techniques in tactical warfare. In
all of these cases the EM (electromagnetic) systems would be used to produce mild to
severe physiological disruption or perceptual distortion or disorientation. In addition,
the ability of individuals to function could be degraded to such a point that they would
be combat ineffective. Another advantage of electromagnetic systems is that they can
provide coverage over large areas with a single system. They are silent and
countermeasures to them may be difficult to develop... One last area where electromagnetic
radiation may prove of some value is in enhancing abilities of individuals for anomalous
Do these comments point to uses already somewhat developed? The author of the
government report refers to an earlier Air Force document about the uses of radiofrequency
radiation in combat situations. (Here Begich and Manning note that HAARP is the most
versatile and the largest radio-frequency-radiation transmitter in the world.)
The United States Congressional record deals with the use of HAARP for penetrating the
earth with signals bounced off of the ionosphere. These signals are used to look inside
the planet to a depth of many kilometers in order to locate underground munitions,
minerals and tunnels. The U.S. Senate set aside $15 million dollars in 1996 to develop
this ability alone -- earth-penetrating-tomography. The problem is that the frequency
needed for earth-penetrating radiations is within the frequency range most cited for
disruption of human mental functions. It may also have profound effects on migration
patterns of fish and wild animals which rely on an undisturbed energy field to find their
As if electromagnetic pulses in the sky and mental disruption were not enough, Eastlund
bragged that the super-powerful ionospheric heater could control weather. Begich and
Manning brought to light government documents indicating that the military has
weather-control technology. When HAARP is eventually built to its full power level, it
could create weather effects over entire hemispheres. If one government experiments with
the world's weather patterns, what is done in one place will impact everyone else on the
planet. Angels Don't Play This HAARP explains a principle behind some of
Nikola Tesla's inventions -- resonance -- which affects planetary systems.
Bubble Of Electric Particles
Angels Don't Play This HAARP includes interviews with independent
scientists such as Elizabeth Rauscher. She has a Ph.D., a long and impressive career in
high-energy physics, and has been published in prestigious science journals and books.
Rauscher commented on HAARP. "You're pumping tremendous energy into an extremely
delicate molecular configuration that comprises these multi-layers we call the
ionosphere." The ionosphere is prone to catalytic reactions, she explained; if a
small part is changed, a major change in the ionosphere can happen.
In describing the ionosphere as a delicately balanced system, Dr. Rauscher shared her
mental picture of it -- a soap-bubble-like sphere surrounding Earth's atmosphere, with
movements swirling over the surface of the bubble. If a big enough hole is punched through
it, she predicts, it could pop.
Slicing The Ionosphere
Physicist Daniel Winter, Ph. D. , of Waynesville, North Carolina, says HAARP
high-frequency emissions can couple with longwave (low-frequency, or ELF) pulses the Earth
grid uses to distribute information as vibrations to synchronize dances of life in the
biosphere. Dan terms this geomagnetic action 'Earth's information bloodstream'., and says
it is likely that coupling of HAARP HF (high-frequency) with natural ELF (extremely low
frequency) can cause unplanned, unsuspected side effects.
David Yarrow of Albany, New York, is a researcher with a background in electronics. He
described possible interactions of HAARP radiations with the ionosphere and Earth's
"HAARP will not burn 'holes' in the ionosphere. That is a dangerous understatement
of what HAARP's giant gigawatt beam will do. Earth is spinning relative to thin electric
shells of the multilayer membrane of 'ion-o-speres' that absorb and shield Earth's surface
from intense solar radiation, including charged particle storms in solar winds erupting
from the sun. Earth's axial spin means that HAARP -- in a burst lasting more than a few
minutes -- will slice through the ionosphere like a microwave knife. This produces not a
'hole', but a long tear -- an incision."
Crudely Plucking The Strings
"Second concept: As Earth rotates, HAARP will slice across geomagnetic flux...a
donut-shaped spool of magnetic strings -- like longitude meridians (on maps). HAARP may
not 'cut' these strings in Gaia's magnetic mantle, but will pulse each thread with harsh,
out-of-harmony high frequencies. These noisy impulses will vibrate geomagnetic flux lines,
sending vibrations all through the geomagnetic web."
"The image comes to mind of a spider on its web. An insect lands, and the web's
vibrations alert the spider to possible prey. HAARP will be a man-made microwave finger
poking at the web, sending out confusing signals, if not tearing holes in the
"Effects of this interference with symphonies of Gaia's geomagnetic harp are
unknown, and I suspect barely thought of. Even if thought of, the intent (of HAARP) is to
learn to exploit any effects, not to play in tune to global symphonies."
Among other researchers quoted is Paul Schaefer of Kansas City. His degree is in
electrical engineering and he spent four years building nuclear weapons. "But most of
the theories that we have been taught by scientists to believe in seem to be falling
apart," he says.
He talks about imbalances already caused by the industrial and atomic age, especially
by radiation of large numbers of tiny, high-velocity particles "like very small
spinning tops into our environment. The unnatural level of motion of highly-energetic
particles in the atmosphere and in radiation belts surrounding Earth is the villain in the
weather disruptions, according to this model, which describes an Earth discharging its
buildup of heat, relieving stress and regaining a balanced condition through earthquakes
and volcanic action.
"One might compare the abnormal energetic state of the Earth and its atmosphere to
a car battery which has become overcharged with the normal flow of energy jammed up,
resulting in hot spots, electrical arcing, physical cracks and general turbulence as the
pent-up energy tries to find some place to go."
In a second analogy, Schaefer says "Unless we desire the death of our planet, we
must end the production of unstable particles which are generating the earth's fever. A
first priority to prevent this disaster would be to shut down all nuclear power plants and
end the testing of atomic weapons, electronic warfare and 'Star Wars'."
Meanwhile, the military builds its biggest ionospheric heater yet, to deliberately
create more instabilities in a huge plasma layer -- the ionosphere -- and to rev up the
energy level of charged particles.
Electronic Rain From The Sky
They have published papers about electron precipitation from the magnetosphere (the
outer belts of charged particles which stream toward Earth's magnetic poles) caused by
man-made very low frequency electromagnetic waves. "These precipitated particles can
produce secondary ionization, emit X-rays, and cause significant perturbation in the lower
Two Stanford University radio scientists offer evidence of what technology can do to
affect the sky by making waves on earth; they showed that very low frequency radio waves
can vibrate the magnetosphere and cause high-energy particles to cascade into Earth's
atmosphere. By turning the signal on or off, they could stop the flow of energetic
Avalanches of energy dislodged by such radio waves could hit us hard. Their work
suggests that technicians could control global weather by sending relatively small
'signals' into the Van Allen belts (radiation belts around Earth). Thus Tesla's resonance
effects can control enormous energies by tiny triggering signals.
The Begich/ Manning book asks whether that knowledge will be used by war-oriented or
The military has had about twenty years to work on weather warfare methods, which it
euphemistically calls weather modification. For example, rainmaking technology was taken
for a few test rides in Vietnam. The U.S. Department of Defense sampled lightning and
hurricane manipulation studies in Project Skyfire and Project Stormfury. And they looked
at some complicated technologies that would give big effects. Angels Don't Play This
HAARP cites an expert who says the military studied both lasers and chemicals which
they figured could damage the ozone layer over an enemy. Looking at ways to cause
earthquakes, as well as to detect them, was part of the project named Prime Argus, decades
ago. The money for that came from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA,
now under the acronym ARPA.)
In 1994 the Air Force revealed its Spacecast 2020 master plan which includes weather
control. Scientists have experimented with weather control since the 1940's, but Spacecast
2020 noted that "using environmental modification techniques to destroy, damage or
injure another state are prohibited". Having said that, the Air Force claimed that
advances in technology "compels a reexamination of this sensitive and potentially
40 Years Of Zapping The Sky?
As far back as 1958, the chief White House advisor on weather modification, Captain
Howard T. Orville, said the U.S. defense department was studying "ways to manipulate
the charges of the earth and sky and so affect the weather" by using an electronic
beam to ionize or de-ionize the atmosphere over a given area.
In 1966, Professor Gordon J. F. MacDonald was associate director of the Institute of
Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the University of California, Los Angeles, was a
member of the President's Science Advisory Committee, and later a member of the
President's Council on Environmental Quality. He published papers on the use of
environmental-control technologies for military purposes. MacDonald made a revealing
"The key to geophysical warfare is the identification of environmental
instabilities to which the addition of a small amount of energy would release vastly
greater amounts of energy."
World-recognized scientist MacDonald had a number of ideas for using the environment as
a weapon system and he contributed to what was, at the time, the dream of a futurist. When
he wrote his chapter, "How To Wreck The Environment", for the book Unless
Peace Comes, he was not kidding around. In it he describes the use of weather
manipulation, climate modification, polar ice cap melting or destabilization, ozone
depletion techniques, earthquake engineering, ocean wave control and brain wave
manipulation using the planet's energy fields. He also said that these types of weapons
would be developed and, when used, would be virtually undetectable by their victims. Is
HAARP that weapon? The military's intention to do environmental engineering is well
U.S. Congress' subcommittee hearings on Oceans and International Environment looked
into military weather and climate modification conducted in the early 1970's. "What
emerged was an awesome picture of far-ranging research and experimentation by the
Department of Defense into ways environmental tampering could be used as a weapon,"
said another author cited in Angels Don't Play This HAARP.
The revealed secrets surprised legislators. Would an inquiry into the state of the art
of electromagnetic manipulation surprise lawmakers today? They may find out that
technologies developed out of the HAARP experiments in Alaska could deliver on Gordon
MacDonald's vision, because leading-edge scientists are describing global weather as not
only air pressure and thermal systems, but also as an electrical system.
'Small Input, Big Effect'
HAARP zaps the ionosphere where it is relatively unstable. A point to remember is that
the ionosphere is an active electrical shield protecting the planet from the constant
bombardment of high-energy particles from space. This conducting plasma, along with
Earth's magnetic field, traps the electrical plasma of space and holds it back from going
directly to the earth's surface, says Charles Yost of Dynamic Systems, Leicester, North
"If the ionosphere is greatly disturbed, the atmosphere below is subsequently
Another scientist interviewed said there is a super-powerful electrical connection
between the ionosphere and the part of the atmosphere where our weather comes onstage, the
One man-made electrical effect - power line harmonic resonance - causes fallout of
charged particles from the Van Allen (radiation) belts, and the falling ions cause ice
crystals (which precipitate rain clouds).
What about HAARP? Energy blasted upward from an ionospheric heater is not much compared
to the total in the ionosphere, but HAARP documents admit that thousandfold-greater
amounts of energy can be released in the ionosphere than injected. As with MacDonald's
"key to geophysical warfare", "nonlinear" effects (described in the
literature about the ionospheric heater) mean small input and large output. Astrophysicist
Adam Trombly told Manning that an acupuncture model is one way to look at the possible
effect of multi-gigawatt pulsing of the ionosphere. If HAARP hits certain points , those
parts of the ionosphere could react in surprising ways.
Smaller ionospheric heaters such as the one at Arecibo are underneath relatively placid
regions of the ionosphere, compared to the dynamic movements nearer Earth's magnetic
poles. That adds another uncertainty to HAARP - the unpredictable and lively upper
atmosphere near the North Pole.
HAARP experimenters do not impress common sense Alaskans such as Barbara Zickuhr, who
says "They're like boys playing with a sharp stick, finding a sleeping bear and
poking it in the butt to see what's going to happen."
Could They Short-Circuit Earth?
Earth as a spherical electrical system is a fairly well-accepted model. However, those
experimenters who want to make unnatural power connections between parts of this system
might not be thinking of possible consequences. Electrical motors and generators can be
caused to wobble when their circuits are affected. Could human activities cause a
significant change in a planet's electrical circuit or electrical field? A paper in the
respected journal Science deals with manmade ionization from radioactive material, but
perhaps it could also be studied with HAARP-type skybusters in mind:
"For example, while changes in the earth's electric field resulting from a solar
flare modulating conductivity may have only a barely detectable effect on meteorology, the
situation may be different in regard to electric field changes caused by manmade
Meteorology, of course, is the study of the atmosphere and weather. Ionization is what
happens when a higher level of power is zapped into atoms and knocks electrons off the
atoms. The resulting charged particles are the stuff of HAARP. "One look at the
weather should tell us that we are on the wrong path," says Paul Schaefer, commenting
on HAARP-type technologies.
Angels Don't Play This HAARP: Advances in Tesla Technology is about the
military's plan to manipulate that which belongs to the world - the ionosphere. The
arrogance of the United States government in this is not without precedent. Atmospheric
nuclear tests had similar goals. More recently, China and France put their people's money
to destructive use in underground nuclear tests. It was recently reported that the US
government spent $3 trillion dollars on its nuclear program since its beginnings in the
1940's. What new breakthroughs in life science could have been made with all the money
spent on death?
Begich, Manning, Roderick and others believe that democracies need to be founded on
openness, rather than the secrecy which surrounds so much military science. Knowledge used
in developing revolutionary weapons could be used for healing and helping mankind. Because
they are used in new weapons, discoveries are classified and suppressed. When they do
appear in the work of other independent scientists, the new ideas are often frustrated or
ridiculed, while military research laboratories continue to build their new machines for
the killing fields.
However, the book by Manning and Begich gives hope that the military- industrial-
academic- bureaucratic Goliath can be affected by the combined power of determined
individuals and the alternative press. Becoming informed is the first step to empowerment.